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Islamic Law - Law which is passed - Passed Law = AlShariah

Q: Does Islam alone have a Law?

A: And We sent down to you (Prophet Muhammad) the Scripture (Qur'an) with the Truth confirming what was before it from the Scripture (Torah - Injeel) and supervising it* so do (command to Prophet Muhammad) judge among them by what Allah sent down (Qur'an) and do not follow their desires diverting you from what has reached you from the Truth - To each (Jews, Christians and Muslims) We (Allah) had assigned a revealed law (Shir'ah) and a set of guidelines (= Minhaj) - and if Allah willed He would have kept you as one nation (like long before) but (He did not) to test you in what He gave you so make haste in the good deeds - to Allah is the return of you all so He will inform you (then) about what you were disagreeing in.
Translation of: Ayah 48, Surat AlMa'idah. (5:48)
* Protecting the Truth in it and adding to it (what a supervisor does).
Reference is to the he Original texts of Torah and Injeel - in the original language that they were sent down (not the translations).
Note: Allah's Message to Muslims and the People of the Book is one. (refer to Surat AlShoura)
Note: Law (= Shariah) of Torah (refer to Surat AlMa'idah)
Note: Law (= Shariah) of Injeel (Bible) (refer to Surat alMa'idah)
Words: Mussadiqan = Confirming, AlKitab = The Scripture - The Holy Book, Muhaymen = Supervising - Protecting - Controlling, Ehkum = Judge, Anzala = Sent, Tattabe' = Follow, Ahwa' = Whims - Desires, Shir'ah = A revealed law - Shariah, Minhaj = A set of guidelines - A System - Methods, Ja'alakum = Kept you- Made, Ummah = Nation - Community, Yablou = Tests, Takhtalifoun = You disagree - differ.

Q: What is the punishment in Islamic Shariah for theft?

A: And the male thief and the female thief so do cut their hands (one hand) as a return for what they did (and) as exemplary punishment from Allah and Allah is AlMighty, All-Wise; Then (after the punishment) who repents after his transgression and does good then Allah will forgive him* for Allah is Most-Forgiving, Most-Merciful.
Translation of: Ayat 38 - 39, Surat AlMa'idah.
* In a saying of the Prophet Muhammad to a woman who repented to Allah after her hand was cut: You are clear from your sin like the day you were born.
Note: In a summary of a saying of the Prophet Muhammad: (The tribe of) Quraysh was concerned about cutting the hand of the woman from the (wealthy) people of "Beni Makhzoum". They chose Usamah Bin Zayd, the Prophet's beloved "servant's" son to intercede on her behalf. The Prophet said: Do you mediate in a divine statute (penalty) of Allah? Then the Prophet preached: The people before you were destroyed because if a known person (with support = AlShareef) stole they would leave him and if a weak person (with no support = AlDhaeef) stole they would subject him to the penatly. By Allah! If "Fatimah" the daughter of Muhammad stole I would have cut her hand, Source: AlLou'lou' walMarjan feema etafaqqa alayhi alSheikhan AlBukhari wa Muslim. In Arabic, page 348.
Note: Theft to be subjected to Islamic penalty must meet certain conditions such as the price value of the item stolen.
* Note: Quraish before Islam was the first tribe to cut the hand of a thief who stole the treasure of AlKa'bah. It is said that some people stole it and left it with him. Source: Tafseer Ibn Kastheer, volume 2 page 82.
Words: Sariq = Male thief, Sariqah = Female thief, Eqta' = Cut, Aydi = Their hands, Jaza'an = As a return, Kasaba = They did, Nakalan = As an exemplary punishment, Taba = Repented, Aslaha = Did good deeds.

Q: Allah is Pure and considers anyone who joins partner(s) with Him impure. Why only Muslims are allowed in Muslims' Sacred Places (Mecca and AlMadinah)?
A: (Allah says) O people who believe (Muslims) for those who join partners with Allah are impure (religiously = najas)* so they should not come near the Sacred Mosque* after this year of theirs (ninth Hijri year) and if you fear poverty so Allah will enrich you from His Favour if He wills for Allah is All-Knowing, All-Wise.
Translation of: Ayah 28, Surat AlTawbah.
* AlHaram (Allah's House) in Mecca and AlMasjid AlNabawi (the Prophet's Mosque) in AlMadinah.
Hint: Remember that the forms of partners joined with Allah: Idols, humans, nature force, self ...etc. Anyone who says he does not believe in anything actually he believes in the human self as the powerful.
Note: In a summary of a saying of the Prophet Muhammad: Whatever afflicts the Muslim: Hardship, illness, worrying, sadness, harm or suffering even if he is pricked by a thorn but Allah takes away from his sins (purifies him). Source: Riyadh AlSaliheen min Kalam Sayed AlMursaleen, page 24.
Note: In a summary of a saying of the Prophet Muhammad: When the believers are saved from The Fire (= yakhlusoun) then they will be stopped on a bridge between Paradise and Hell. So their injustice cases of this world among them will be judged. When they are corrected (= huththibou) and purified (= nuqqou) they will be granted remission to enter Paradise. Source: Tafseer Ibn Kastheer, volume 2, page 809.
Words: Mushrikoun = Those who join partners with Allah, Najas = Impure - La = Not, Yaqrabou = Come near, AlMasjid AlHaram = The Sacred Mosque, Ba'da = After, Aam = Year, Khiftum = You fear (plural) Aylah = Poverty, Yughni = Enriches, Fadhlihi = His Favour - His Bounty.

Q: Should Muslims follow famous historic books when guidance is available in the Qur'an and the Prophet's Sunnah?

A: Have you (Prophet Muhammad) not seen those who claim that they have believed in what was sent down to you (Qur'an) and what was sent before you (original Tawrah and Injeel) want to seek the judgement of other than Allah (disbelievers = AlTaghout) and they were commanded (by Allah) to disbelieve in him (Disbelieving G "AlTaghout" is from Satan) and Satan wants to make them stray (with) a far away straying (from Allah's Path).
Translation of: Ayah 60, Surat AlNisa'.
Note: According to Shaikh Waleed Basyouni in "Obligation of following Sahabah's Methodology": The "Shia Muslims" follow mainly historic books such as AlImam AlHakim's while "Ahl (people of) AlSunnah walJama'ah (= the group of consensus (general agreement)" follow the Sunnah of the Prophet Muhammad as narrated by authentic and trustworthy narrators. Any narration which is doubtful or not well known Ahl AlSunnah walJama'ah call it "weak = dha'eef".
Note: Islam encourages "AlIjtihad = Interpretive Judgment" as long as it is 1. not "bid'ah = (new concept that misleads away from Allah's Path), 2. not against the Qur'an and the Sunnah and 3. not against what the Prophet's companions agreed on (their interpretive judgement was in line with the Qur'an or the Sunnah). For example a summary is: When the Prophet died Muslims asked the Prophet's successor Abu Bakr about the Tamattu` means performing (Umrah "voluntary lesser pilgrimage" during the Hajj season). Abu Bakr said (No) and Umar Bin AlKhatab respected his opinion and said (No). Abdullah Bin Umar Bin AlKhattab said he heard the Prophet had said (Yes). The companions said but Abu Bakr and Umar said (No). Abdullah Bin Umar said: By Allah, you are about to be stoned from the Heaven. I say the Prophet said and you say Abu Bakr and Umar said!! Source: Scholar: Shaikh Waleed Basyouni, Obligations of following Sahabah's Methodology. (Note: Shaikh Waleed also adds (a summary of it is:) Some sahabah (Prophet's companions) deviated away from Allah Path after the death of the Prophet. The Prophet will come to know this when they will not be allowed by angels to drink from the Prophet's river "AlKassthar". The Prophet will say: My companions! The angels will say: Only if you knew what they did after you.
Words: Yaz'amoun = who claim, Unzila = Was sent, Yureedoun = They want, Yatahakamou = They seek judgement, AlTaghout = Other than Allah, Yudhil = Makes them stray - Misleads, Ba'eedan = Far away.

Q: What benefit does the whole society get when its punishment system includes killing the deliberate killer?
Hint: See why the blood of the persons killed nowadays is very cheap.
A: O people who believe (in Allah) retaliation for the killed is prescribed to you - the free for the free, the slave for the slave and the female for the female. But if he (killer) is released (from being killed) somehow by his (the killed person's) brother* then a following up (of a ransom by the brother) in a kind way and payment (of blood money by the killer) to him in a good way - that is easing from your God and a Mercy** but if he (killer) attacks after that then for him is a severe punishment (to be killed with no ransom); And for you (society) in the retaliation a life O men of understanding so that you may protect yourselves by fearing (Allah).
Translation of: Ayat 178 - 179, Surat AlBaqarah.
* Relative who pursues the case.
** According to Hassanain Muhammad Makhlouf, the ex-Mufti of Egypt: Retaliation is prescribed for the Jews without ransom (= diyyah) or forgiveness. Forgiveness is prescribed for the Christians without ransom or retaliation. But Allah gave the Muslim nation the options of: Retaliation, forgiveness or acceptance of blood money (indemnity) as easing and Mercy for them. Source: Safwat AlBayan LiMa'ani AlQur'an, page 42.
Words: Qisas = Retaliation - Revenge - Punishment, Hur = Free, Abd = Slave, Unstha = Female, Ufiya = Released - Eliminated, Akh = Brother - Fellow man, ettiba' = Following up, BilMa'rouf = In a kind way, Ada' = Payment, BiIhsan = In a good way, Takhfeef = Easing - Making light, Rahmah = Mercy, E'tada = Attacked - Assaulted, Aleem = Severe, Hayat = Life - Living, Uli AlAlbab = Men of understanding - Those who understand, Tataqoun = Who protect themselves by fearing Allah - You become righteous.

Q: If a person kills someone who first has the right to decide what to do with the killer?
A: And do not take life which Allah had forbidden except for a just cause - And who is killed unjustly then We (Allah) have given his heir authority* but let him not exceed the bounds in the killing** for he (heir) is being aided (by Allah and governing authority).
Translation of: Ayah 33, Surat AlIsra' (known also as Surat Beni Israel).
* One of these three options: Retaliation by killing the killer (= Qisas), forgiveness, or acceptance of blood money (= diyyah).
** Only killing the killer without any mutilation of his body. Source: Tafseer Ibn Kastheer, volume 3, page 57.

Note: Ibn Kastheer also mentions a "strange incident" in his scholarly book "Tafseer Ibn Kastheer" volume 3, page 57: Following this Ayah, Mu'awiyah Bin Sufyan was the heir of the unjustly murdered third Caliph in Islam "Usthman Bin Affan" (was murdered while reading the Qur'an for he did not want to fight back in order not to spill the blood of any Muslim). Mu'awiyah asked Ali Bin Abi Taleb (may Allah be pleased with him) for the killers of Usthman. The latter could not hand them over and asked Mu'awiyah to hand over Bilad AlSham (Syria and its surroudings). Then Mu'awiyah did not vote for Ali, the fourth Caliph in Islam.
(The rift among Muslims, which started after the Prophet's death when Abu Bakr was chosen the first Caliph and not the Imam Ali, continued until today, seen in the two major sects in Islam: Sunni and Shia).

Also Remember the prayer of mercy (Allahumma Salli) based on a saying of the Prophet Muhammad that many preachers in many Muslim mosques often repeat towards the end of every Friday sermon: The most merciful (= arhamuhum) man with my (Muslim) nation is Abu Bakr, the most strict (= ashaduhum) in the command of Allah is Umar, the full of modesty (fearing Allah) (= akmaluhum haya'an) is Usthman and the best of them in making judgement (= aqdhaahum) is Ali may Allah be pleased with them all. After the Prophet Muhammad they succeeded as the Muslim Nation's Caliphs.
Words: La = Not, Taqtulou AlNafs = Take life - Kill, Harrama = Made forbidden - Made sacred, BilHaq = For a just cause, Qutila = Is killed, Mathlouman = Unjustly, Wali = Heir, Sultan = Authority - Power, Yusrif = Exceeds the bounds, Mansoura = Being aided - Being helped.

Q: In court cases what main characteristic should exist in the witnesses, lawyers, the Jury and the judge? Give an example?
Hint: Fear of injustice from any member of the judicial team renders people helpless of commanding the good and prohibiting the bad.
A: O believers the evidence among you when death approaches any of you when making the will two just (fair) persons from your (accompanying) people or two persons other than you (strangers) if you were traveling in the land and the catastrophe of death afflicted you, you will keep them (the two witnesses) back after the prayer so they will take an oath by Allah: If you have any doubt we do not purchase with it (our testimony) a price (of this Life) even if he is a relative and we do not conceal Allah's testimony for then we will certainly be from the sinners.
Translation of: Ayah 106, Surat AlMa'idah.
Words: Shahadatu = Evidence - Testimony, Heena AlWassiyyah = When making the will, Esthnan = Two persons, Thawa Adl = Just - Fair, Akharan = Two persons, Min ghayrikum = Other than you, Dharabtum fi AlAlrdh = Were travelling in the land, Museebat = The catastrophe, AlMawt = Death, Tahbisounahuma = You keep them back, In Ertabtum = If you have any doubt, Nashtari = We purchase - We sell, Naktum = Conceal, Asthimeen = Sinners.

Q: Why is it important to get a character background check of those involved in a court case?
Hint: To insure that they are not lying and justice is served.
Note: The answer follows the line translated directly above this posting.
A: But if it is discovered that they (two witnesses) were guilty* then two other persons from those (relatives) against whose lawful right (to the inheritance) the two were found guilty so they will take an oath: For our testimony is certainly more true than theirs (two) and we have not transgressed for then we will certainly be from the wrongdoers; This draws it closer for them to make a true testimony or to fear that other oaths will be taken (by other witnesses) after their oaths and protect yourselves by fearing Allah and obey and Allah does not guide the people who stray away (from Allah's Path).
Translation of: Ayat 107 - 108, Surat AlMa'idah.
* Of dishonesty for example.
Words: Estahaqqa Isthman = They ere guilty, Maqamahuma = In their places, FaYuqsiman = So they will take an oath, LaShahadatuna = For our testimony is certainly, Ahaqq = More true, Ma E'tadayna = We have not transgressed, Adna = Draws it closer, Ya'tou BilShahadah Ala Wajhiha = To make a true testimony, Turada Ayman Ba'da Aymanihim = Other oaths will be taken after their oaths, Esma'ou = Obey.

Q: Why should Muslims honour their contracts and treaties even with the disbelievers?
Hint: Contracts are binding for Muslims because they are made under the umbrella of Islam with its top contract being the Covenant of Islam with Allah.
A: And fulfill the Covenant of Allah when you enter into a contract and do not break the oaths after their confirmation for you made Allah upon you A Guarantor for Allah knows what you do; ---; And do not use your oaths for disturbance (deception) among you then a foot will slip after being firmly placed (in Islam) and (then) you taste the trouble (from Allah) for preventing from the Path of Allah and for you (then) a Severe Punishment (on Day of Judgment); And do not purchase with the Covenant of Allah a small price (value in this Life) for what with Allah (in the Other World) is better for you only if you knew.
Translation of: Ayat 91, 94 - 95*, Surat AlNahl.
* Line 96 in Chapter AlNahl.
Words: Awfou = Fulfill - Honour, Itha Aahadtum = If you enter into a contract, Tanqudhou = You break, AlAyman = Oaths, Tawkeediha = After their confirmation, Kafeela = Guarantor - Surety, Dakhalan = Disturbance - Imbalance, FaTazil Qadam = Then a foot slips, Sthoboutiha = After being firmly placed, Sthaman = A price, Khair = Better.

Q: When Muslims are in dispute about a religious opinion which judge should they refer to?
A: And whatever you disagree in then its Ruling refers to Allah - (command to every Muslim) say such is Allah my God in Him I trust and to Him I turn in repentance*.
Translation of: Ayah 10, Surat AlShoura. (42:10)
* For forgivenss for my previous actions or sayings that could have been against Allah's Religion.
Note: First look in the Qur'an for a ruling and if not found then look in AlSunnah . It is essential in Islam to obey the Prophet Muhammad after obeying Allah.
Words: Ekhtalaftum = You disagree in, Min shaye' = Whatever - Anything, FaHukmuhu = Then its ruling, Thalikum = Such is - Previously said is, Tawakaltu = I trust - I depend, Uneeb = Turn in repentance.

Q: Does Islam derive its blasphemy law from the Qur'an?
Note: Reference to Toronto Star's article on "Blasphemy Law".
Note; . According to Merriam Webster's Dictionary "Blasphemy is the act of insulting or showing contempt.toward something considered sacred or inviolable". Blasphemy in Islam.
Also Blasphemy in Islam.
Note: Remember in Islam do not insult others' religions so that they do not insult Allah. Line 108 in Surat AlAn'am in the Qur'an is translated: And do not insult those who call upon other than Allah then they insult Allah in transgression without knowledge ---".
Note: Muslims should refrain from taking the blasphemy law or any Islamic law for settling personal disputes or gaining political purposes. Also remember that what is protected against blasphemy should be either in the Qur'an or the Sunnah (Way) of the Prophet Muahmmad peace be upon him. People cannot make other people or things sacred and therefore against blasphemy. And Allah knows Best.

Q: Why does Allah call the sinners to turn in repentance to Him?
A: Allah wants to grant you Forgiveness* and those who follow greedy desires want you to turn away (from Allah) - turning far away.
Translation of: Ayah 27, Surat AlNisa'.
* Remember that Allah forgives all sins. When a disbeliever in his life (and not at time of death) sincerely turns to Allah in repentance all his pre-Islamic sins will be forgiven if Allah grants him Forgiveness. The Prophet Muhammad said: Islam throws away what sins were committed before (= AlIslam yajubu ma Qabluhu).
Note: There are clear punishment laws and punishment methods for some crimes in Islam such as stealing, committing adultery and killing. The punishment in such cases are meant to stabilize and secure the Muslim societies.
Please refer to the fatwa (a ruling on a point of Islamic law that is given by a recognized Islamic authority) to find out:
1. If blasphemy in Islam and its punishment (= Had) is the same for Muslims and non Muslims.
2. to find out if blasphemy falls in the category of sins that if repented for, Allah forgives the sinner or if it is a punishable sin in life like stealing for example.
Note: Please remember that Allah commanded the Prophet Muhammad to ignore the harm done by the hypocrites and the disbelievers for Allah is Enough for them.
Words: Yureed = Wants, Yatoub = Grants you Forgiveness - Forgives, Yattabioun AlShahawat = They follow greedy desires, Tameelou = Turn away, Maylan Atheeman = Turning far away.

Q: How does the Qur'an combine the harsh punishment tendency in the Old Testament "Torah" and the relaxed forgiveness tendency in the New Testament?
A: And the punishment of a bad deed (offence or crime) is an equal bad deed (punishment) but whoever (victim's party) has forgiven and reconciled then his reward is with Allah for He (Allah) does not like those who do injustice.
Translation of: Ayah 40, Surat AlShoura.
Note: Allah's Religion is interactive and deals with people accordingly. Allah's Relgion had to spread. At the beginning when the Torah was sent down the Jews then were commanded to utterly destroy the disbelievers who were against them. In the OLd Testament that includes the Sacred Scripture of the Hebrews,
Saul (= Talut), a king appointed by Allah was told by Samuel, a Prophet of Allah, to: do what Allah commanded: To go and attack Amalek and utterly destroy all that they have, and do not spare them. But slay both man and woman, child and baby, ox and sheep, camel and ass.
Then Allah's Religion spread but people were still harsh in the punishment, Jesus peace be upon him was sent to promote forgiveness. If a person strikes you on the cheek turn the other cheek to him. Then Allah's Religion spread but people tended to become relaxed in the punishment, Muhammad peace be upon him was sent as a messenger of Allah. He promoted the Qur'an's middle way between Judaism and Christianity. Punish only equally to what you have been punished for. Or take ransom (diyyah). Forgiving and reconciling will earn you your reward from Allah.
Words: Jaza' = Punishment, Say'eah = Bad deed, Afaa = Has forgiven, Aslaha = Reconciled, La Yuhib = Does not Like.

Q: Some of us maybe wondering when going into the Holy Land why the People of Israel were commanded to commit what nowadays we call "widespread genocide" against their disbelieving enemy?
Note: After the battle of Badr, the first battle in Islam the Prophet Muhammad accepted to free the captives of war (70) in return for ransom (diyyah). One of the captives was the Prophet's own uncle AlAbbas who became later a Muslim. (His son "Ibn Abbas" is a famous scholar of the Qur'an).
A: It was not right to any prophet to have captives (of war) until he massacres in the land - you (all) want the temporary enjoyment (ransom) of this life and Allah wants (you to concentrate on) the Other Life and Allah is AlMighty, All-Wise.
Translation of: Ayah 67, Surat AlAnfal. (8:67)
Note: Worshipping Allah as the One and Only God is the nature that Allah created man upon. When the majority of humanity deviates, Allah's Command used to come to send a prophet to straighten people on Allah's Path. (Prophet Muhammad is the seal of Allah's prophets)
Also, Allah's Justice dictates to honour the challenge that Satan made against Allah and Allah accepted. Satan challenged to lure people to deviate them from Allah's Path. Yet Allah had predestined that Allah's Word has to prevail.
Words: Asra = Captives, Yuthkhin = Massacres - To weaken the enemy by killing and wounding, Tureedouna = You want, Ardh = Temporary enjoyment, AlDunya = This life, AlAkhirah = The Other Life.

Q: Why is it Allah's Doctrine that an aggressor should be met with a fitting (equal) punishment?
Hint: Justice must be served. Aggression for example against Allah and His Commandments can lead to Hell if Allah's Mercy does not engulf the sinner.
A: For Hell had been lying in wait; For the transgressors (oppressors) a returning place; Staying in it for ages; They will not taste coolness in it neither any (cold) drink; Except boiling water and (the food) what oozes out of the wounds (with pus); A fitting (equal) repayment; For they were not looking for a reckoning; And they rejected as lies Our (Allah's) Lines (Qur'an) a full rejection; And everything We enumerated it in writing; So taste for We will not increase for you except the punishment.
Translation of: Ayat 21 - 30, Surat AlNaba'.
Note: Reference to Grace chow's opinion "she knows culture of violence", Re: Rioting and the culture of violence Opinion June 20, that appeared on Toronto Star's Editorial page of 23 June 2011. It starts with "I know too well the culture of violence. My son, Nicholas chow Johnson was violently, viciously and brutally attacked by a gang of hoodlums while out walking alone. It was an unprovoked attack. The gang were mostly young offenders - they got a slap on the wrist. Since the attack Nicholas cannot talk, and wears a diaper, has to be fed as he cannot get up in bed, and he has minimal brain functions. His two legs are like sticks now. The incident happened in Victoria, B.C. in October 2001, when he was 19..."
Words: Mirsada = Had been lying in wait, Tagheen = Transgressors, Labistheen = Staying, Ahqaba = Ages, Yathouqoun = Taste, Bardan = Coolness, Sharaba = Drink, Hameeman = Boiling water, Gassaqa = What oozes out of the wounds (with pus), Jaza'an = Repayment, Wafaqa = Fitting - Equal, Hisaba = A reckoning - A settlement of account - A reckoning, Kathabou Kithaba = They rejected as lies a full rejection, Ahsaynahu = We enumerated it, Falen Nazeedukum = We will not increase for you, Athaba = Punishment - Suffering.

Q: If the punishment for rioting and looting is imprisonment with different entertainment/educational/vocational activities will the punishment then be equivalent to the damage and the suffering that it caused?
Note: In Islam crimes that threaten the balance of a safe and secure society have clear punishment guidelines for deterring future crimes (= Hodoud Allah: Prescribed restrictions on man's freedom of action). For example the punishment for theft.
A: And if you punish (inflict punitive suffering) then punish equivalent to what you have been penalized with and if you have patience* then that is certainly better for those who are patient.
Translation of: Ayah 126, Surat AlNahl.
* When capable of punishing who did wrong to you but you choose to forgive him for Allah's Reward.
Words: Aaqabtum = If you punish, BiMisthli = Equivalent, La'in Sabartum = If you have patience.

Q: When can a ruling be fair and just?
A: To Him (Allah) is the return of you all - the Promise of Allah (of the return) will be fulfilled for He begins the creation then He repeats it so as to repay those who believed and did the righteous deeds according to justice (balance) of the scale (= bilQist*) and those who disbelieved for them is a drink of boiling water and a severe punishment for what they were disbelieving (in).
Translation of: Ayah 4, Surat Yunus. (10:4)
* 'AlQistas' is the scale (measurement tool). 'AlMeezan' is the balance of the scale.
Words: Marji'ukum = Your return, Jameean = All, Haqqan = Will be fulfilled - Will come true, Yabda'u = Begins, Yu'eeduhu = Repeats it, LiYajzi = To repay, AlSsalihhat = The good deeds, BilQist = According to justice of the scale, Kafarou = Disbelieved, Sharab = Drink, Hameem = Boiling water.

Q: How are children (pre-teens) who have not reached puberty not dealt with as adults?
A: O believers let those whom you own (slaves - domestic servants) ask your permission (to enter your room) and (also) those (pre-teens) who did not reach puberty* among you three times before dawn prayer and when you rid yourselves of clothing at time of midday heat and after the night prayer - Three privacy times** for you - there is no blame upon you or them after them (three times) - moving freely around one another - in this way Allah explains to you the Miraculous Signs (Qur'anic Verses) and Allah is All-Knowing All-Wise; And when children (pre-teens) among you reach puberty then let them ask permission (all times) just as those (adults) before them asked permission (to enter) in this way Allah explains to you His Miraculous Signs and Allah is All-Knowing All-Wise.
Translation of: Ayat 58 - 59, Surat AlNoor.
* Commonly known to be 14. Refers to your own children or any children in the house.
** Sexual intercourse between husbands and wives can take place at these times.
Words: Yastathinakum = Ask your permission to enter, AlLtheena malakat Aymanukum = Those whom you own (slaves), Lem Yablaghou AlHulm = Did not reach puberty, Heen Tadh'oun = When you rid yourselves, Sthiyabakum = Your clothing - Your garments, Min AlDhaheerah = At time of midday heat, Min Ba'di = After, Salat AlIsha' = Night prayer, Sthalasth = Three, Awrat = Privacy times, Junah = Blame, Tawwafoon = Moving around, Yubayyen = Explains, Balagha = Reach.

Q: What example explains that mentally challenged (mentally disabled) persons are not held responsible for their actions in Islam?
A: And do not give the incompetent* (among orphans) your wealth (originally theirs) that Allah entrusted you with undertaking** and feed them from it and clothe them and say to them good words.
Translation of: Ayah 5, Surat AlNisa'.
* = (AlSufaha 'plural') Unable to function properly. Not legally qualified. Source: Merriam Webster's Deluxe Dictionary.
** (= Qiyaman) Accepting the responsibility of managing the wealth.
Words: La Tu'tou = Do not give, AlSufaha' = The incompetent - The fools, Amwalakum = Your wealth, Ja'ala Lakum Qiyaman = Entrusted you with undertaking, Urzukouhum = Feed them, Uksouhum = Clothe them, Qulou = Say, Ma'roufa = Good - Kind.

Q: In Islam what hinders people from making false accusations?
A: And those who accuse (of adultery) chaste free women* then they do not bring about four witnesses (as evidence)** so whip them eighty times and do not ever accept their testimony and they are who sinfully strayed away (from Allah's Path); Except those who repented*** after that and did righteous deeds then Allah is Most-Forgiving Most-Merciful
Translation of: Ayat 4 - 5, Surat AlNoor. (24:4-5)
* Of unblemished reputation.
** Who have seen the actual intercourse with their eyes. (A pre-requite that prevents people from making adultery accusations).
*** After receiving the punishment.
Note: Read a Toronto Star's recent article about the importance of bringing about evidence in Islamic Shariah.
Words: Yarmoun = Accuse, AlMuhssanat = Chaste free women - Women of unblemished reputation, Shuhada' = Witnesses, FaJludouhum Sthamaneen Jaldah = Then whip them eighty times, Taqbalou = Accept, Lahum Shahadah = Their testimony, AlFasiqoun = Who sinfully strayed away from Allah's Path, Tabou = Repented, Aslahou = Did righteous deeds.

Q: Why should not Muslims tamper with female's share in inheritance?
A: For men is a share in what (inheritance) the two parents and the close relatives leave and for women is a share in what the two parents and the close relatives leave - in what is small of it or large - an obligatory (by Allah) share.
Translation of: Ayah 7, Surat AlNisa'. (4:7)
Words: Naseeb = Share, Mafrou'dha = Obligatory - Ordained.

Q: When dividing one's inheritance whose share should be taken care of?
A: And if (other) close relatives (not inheritors) and orphans and needy (poor) persons are present at the distribution (of the inheritance) then provide them (some) of it and say to them kind words.
Translation of: Ayah 8, Surat AlNisa'. (4:8)
Words: Hadhara = Are present, AlQismata = The distribution, Masakeen = Needy, Qawlan Ma'roufa = kind words.

Q: Whom should a Muslim advising or distributing inheritance compare the inheritors to?
A: And let those (inheritance distributors) who (themselves) might have left behind a weak offspring they would have (certainly) feared for them fear (for current inheritors) and protect themselves by fearing Allah and let them say accurate (honest) words.
Translation of: Ayah 9, Surat AlNisa'. (4:9)
Note: Inheritance shares are dictated by Allah. Islamic Law of Inheritance is a detailed law. To be just and fair muslims leaving wills have to refer to the Islamic Law.
In a will a Muslim can dictate how much charity he wants to give. In a summary of a saying of the Prophet Muhammad: When Prophet Muhammad visited the ailing companion "Sa'ad Bin Abi Waqas" Saad said he is a rich person and he has only one daughter as his heiress so should he give two thirds of his wealth as a voluntary charity (= Sadaqah). The Prophet said no. Sa'ad said a half. The Prophet said no. He said a third. The Prophet said: A third and the third is a lot. Then the Prophet said: Leaving your inheritors rich is better than leaving them dependant asking people for help. Source: Tafseer Ibn Kastheer, volume 1 page 639.
Words: Yakhsha = Fear - Worry, Kharfou = feared, Sadeedan = C Accurate - Straighforward - Honest.

Q: What should be considered first before the distribution of the inheritance begins?
A: Allah directs you (plural) regarding your children - for the male equal to the share of two females but if they were females more than two then for them is two thirds of what he (dead person) left behind - and if only one then for her is the half and for his parents for each one from them a sixth from what he left behind if he had offspring -
but if he does not have offspring and his parents inherited him then for his mother is a third (of inheritance) but if he has brothers then for his mother is a sixth after (considering) a (inheritance) will he ordered or a debt* - your parents and your children you do not know which of them is more beneficial** to you - (Islamic inheritance distribution) (dictated) as an obligatory duty from Allah for Allah is All-Knowing All-Wise.
Translation of: Ayah 11, Surat AlNisa'. (4:11)
* A dead person's debt must be paid before the distribution of the inheritance.
** Good deeds which one's inheritors do in his name go into his account even after his death. (in Surat YaSeen)
Note: If a person does not leave behind a will Judges in Islamic countries distribute the inheritance according to the Islamic Inheritance law.
Words: Yuseekum = Directs you - Orders you - Advises you, Ma Taraka = What he left behind, AlSthuluth = A third - One third, SlSudus = One sixth, Ba'da Wassiyatin Youssi Biha = A will he ordered, La Tadrouna = You do no know, Aqrabu Lakum Nafaa = More beneficial, Fareedhatan = Dictated as an obligatory duty.

Q: If a Muslim leaves a will why should it be according to Islamic Inheritance Law (lawful = halal)?
Note:From the Ayah towards the end, it is understood that when a person makes a will different from Allah's command in inheritance someone has to tell him to change it before his death.
Note: Towards the end (in red) "Youssa"**** = A will he was directed (advised) of.
While "Youssi" and its derivatives is he ordered (left) a will.

A: And for you (men) is a half of what your spouses left behind if they do not have an offspring (children)* so if they have an offspring then for you (men) is a quarter from what they left behind after (considering) a (inheritance) will they (wives) ordered (= Yousseena) it or a debt - and for them (wives) is a quarter from what you (men) left behind if you (plural) do not have an offspring but if you have an offspring then for them (wives) is an eighth of what you (plural) left behind after (considering) a (inheritance) will you ordered (= toussouna) or a debt - and if he (dead person) is with no parent or offspring (= Kalalatan) leaving inheritance - or a woman (similar case) - and he has a brother or a sister (from a mother**) then for each of them is a sixth but if they were more than that then they are partners*** in a third (share) after (considering)a (inheritance) will he was directed (advised) of (= Youssa****) or a debt***** causing no harm (to anyone) - (Islamic inheritance distribution) (dictated) as a directive command from Allah and Allah is All-Knowing Most-Tolerant.
Translation of: Ayah 12, Surat AlNisa'. (4:12)
* Included is offspring from previous marriage.
Also children of a man's son are included. Source: Tafseer waBayan Mufridat AlQuran, in Arabic, page 79.
** Source: Tafseer Ibn Kastheer, volume 1, page 645.
*** Same share for male and female. Source: Tafseer Ibn Kastheer, volume 1, page 646. **** He was advised that his will should be according to Allah's command in inheritance.
***** Debt has to be paid first before the distribution.
Note: In a summary of a saying of the Prophet Muhammad as followed in many schools of Islamic thought of Abi Haneefah, Malik, Ahmad Bin Hanbal and the old sayings of AlShafi'ey: (Allah has given every one deserving his due right so there is no will for a person leaving inheritance. = Inna Allah qed a'ta kulla thi Haqqin Haqqahu feLa Wassiyatan LiWaristh.)
However it is agreed upon among Islamic scholars if the will is a DECLARATION (= Iqrar) according to Allah's command in inheritance then the will is lawful. But if the will is to give more to someone and less to another then it is forbidden in Islam. Source: Tafseer Ibn Kastheer, volume 1 page 647.
Words: Walad = Offspring - Children, Kalalatan = with no parent or offspring, AlSudus = A sixth, AlSthumun = An eighth, Youssa = A will he was directed (advised) of, Gharya Mudhar = Causing no harm, Wassiyatan = A directive command, Haleem = Most-Tolerant.

Q: Why should Muslims not tamper with inheritance shares for example giving those whom they love more than the other inheritors?
A: Those (inheritance shares) are limits prescribed by Allah (= Hodoud Allah) and whoever obeys Allah and His Messenger (Prophet Muhammad) He (Allah) will admit him into Gardens underneath which the rivers flow remaining for eternity in them and that is the Superb Victory.
Translation of: Ayah 13, Surat AlNisa'. (4:13)
Words: Hodoud Allah = Limits prescribed by Allah - Prescribed restrictions on man's freedom of action, Yute' = Obeys, Yudkhilhu = He will admit him, AlFawz = Victory, AlAdheem = Superb - Great.

Q: Why is it unlawful (= haram) to be unfair (unjust) to some inheritors?
A: And whoever disobeys Allah and His Messenger(Prophet Muhammad) and transgresses His (Allah's) Limits (= Hodoudahu) He will admit him in a Fire remaining for eternity in it and for him is (other) humiliating punishment.
Translation of: Ayah 14, Surat AlNisa'. (4:14)
Words: Ya'ssi = Disobeys, Yataadda = Transgresses - Goes beyond.

Q: Why does Allah dictate through the Qur'an DETAILS of issues such as inheritance - issues which can affect relationship among people and thus affect the society?
A: Allah wants to make (issues) clear for you and to guide you into the ways of those (righteous people) who were before you and to grant you Forgiveness and Allah is All-Knowing All-Wise.
Translation of: Ayah 26, Surat AlNisa'. (4:26)
Words: LiYubayyena = To make clear - To explain, Sunn = ways - pattern, Yatoub = Grants you Forgiveness.

Q: What does Guidance from Allah for example in inheritance matters keep under control?
A: And Allah wants to grant you (plural) Forgiveness and those who follow the (uncontrolled) desires want you to divert (from Allah's Path)- a great diversion.
Translation of: Ayah 27, Surat AlNisa'. (4:27)
Words: Allatheena Yattabe'ouna = Those who follow, AlShahawat = Desires - Lusts, Tameelou = Divert - Turn away.

Q: Why does man need Allah's help in providing him with details of matters which are important to the society?
A: Allah wants to ease it for you and human being is created weak.
Translation of: Ayah 28, Surat AlNisa'. (4:28)
Note: If issues affecting societies like inheritance are left to the society what one society deems right another society may deem it wrong. The issue of homosexuality nowadays in USA for example(year 2014).
Words: Yukhafifa = Ease it, Khuliqa = Is created, Dha'eefa = Weak.

Q: Why does Allah provide us with even more details of inheritance for example?
Note: Inheritance in Islam is a very detailed and complicated law to serve justice. Please refer first to the translation of Ayah 12 in the the same Chapter "AlNisa" because it mentions details of inheritance.
A: They ask for your legal religious opinion say (command to Prophet Muhammad) Allah states a ruling concerning the dead person with no surviving parent or offspring (= AlKalalati) - if a person perishes without having an offsrping but he has a sister then for her is a half of what he left behind and he inherits her if she does not have an offspring - but if they were two (females) then for them (both) is two thirds of what he left behind and if they were siblings males and females then for the male is the share of the two females - Allah explains for you lest you go astray (from Allah's Path) and Allah is of everything All-Knowing.
Translation of: Ayah 176, Surat AlNisa'. (4:176)
Words: Yastaftounaka = They ask for your legal religious opinion, Yufteekum = States a ruling, Emr'oun = Person, Halaka = Perishes - Dies, Nisf = Half, Taraka = He left behind, Yaristhuha = He inherits her, Ikhwah = Siblings, Hadh = Share, AlUnsthiyayn = the two females.

Q: What should a Muslim man who wants to marry a new Muslim woman first be sure of?
A: O those who believed when believing women (married to disbelieving men) come to you as emigrant women then do put them to the test* - Allah knows Best about their belief (their hidden motives) - so if you marked them as believing women then do not return them to disbelieving men** - they (believing women) are not allowed for them and they (disbelieving men) are not allowed for them - and do give them (disbelieving men) what (wealth) they spent (as dowry) - and there is no blame on you (Muslim men) if you want to marry them if you give them (believing women) their dues (dowries) -
and do not hold to the marriage contract of the disbelieving women - and ask (disbelievers) (to pay) for what you (believing men) spent (on dowries) and let them ask for what they spent (when their wives emigrate) - that is Allah's Ruling He judges (by it) among you and Allah is All-Knowing All-Wise.
Translation of: Ayah 10, Surat AlMumtahanah. (60:10)
* That they as believing women take an oath by Allah that they did not emigrate and left their disbelieving husbands because of hatred, or desiring a new land, or desiring wealth of this life. Their action is only for the love of Allah and His Messenger (Prophet Muhammad). Source: Tafseer Ibn Kastheer, volume 4, page 529.
** The "Ayah' was revealed after the Treaty of AlHudaibiyyah. In the Treaty "And if a 'Qurayshite' comes without the permission of his guardian to Muhammad, he shall be delivered up to Quraysh; but if, on the other hand, one of Muhammad's people comes to Quraysh, he shall not be delivered up to Muhammad". Refer to Sulh AlHudaibiyyah.
Note: Watch a video about a question: Can a Muslim marry a non-Muslim.
Words: Muhajirat = Emigrant women, Alimtomouhunna = You marked, Hillun = Allowed, Junaha = Blame, Tankihouhunna = You marry them, Ujourahunna = Their dues, La Tumskou = Do not hold - Do not keep, Isemi AlKawafir = Marriage Contract of disbelieving women, Hukm = Ruling, Yahkum = He judges.

Q: Who should give back a Muslim man the dowry he spent on his wife who chooses to remain a disbeliever and quits her marriage relationship?
A: (To Muslim men) And if some of your wives desert you to the disbelievers and (subsequently) you obtain* something (some spoils etc) then give those whose wives have left the equivalent to what they spent and protect yourselves by fearing Allah in Whom you are believers.
Translation of: Ayah 11, Surat AlMumtahanah. (60:11)
* Ask the disbelieving men to give back the dowry (above in Ayah 10). Otherwise the Muslim community can give it from what they got. Source; Tafseer Ibn Kastheer, volume 4, page. 532.
Note: Prophet Muhammad gave first back the equivalent of dowry to those whose wives deserted them because of religion. Source: "Safwat AlBayan liMa'ani AlQur'an", by ex-Mufti of Egypt 'AlSheikh Hassanain Muhammad Makhlouf', page 719.
Words: FaAaqabtum = You obtain something, Thahbat = Have left, Azwajuhum = Their wives, Misthla = Equivalent, Anfaqou = They spent.

Q: What is the Islamic Ruling when a man takes an oath not to sleep with his wife?
A: For those who swear not to approach (have sex with) their wives is to wait four* months then if they returned (together) then Allah is Most Forgiving Most Merciful.
Translation of: Ayah 226, Surat AlBaqarah. (2:226)
* It is narrated that Umar bin AlKhattab, the second Caliph after the death of Prophet Muhammad, asked his daughter Hafsa , may Allah be pleased with her, how long can a married woman be patient when her husband is not near her. She said four or six months. So Umar said: I will not restrain any army longer than that. Source: Tafseer Ibn Kastheer, volume 1 page 385.
Words: Yu'louna = Swear not to approach - Swear not to have sex with, Tarrabus = To wait, Fa'ou = Returned.

Q: What type of a relationship a couple may have when a man swears not to approach his wife?
A: And if they (after 4 month period) made up their minds to get a divorce then (remember) Allah is All-Hearing All-Knowing.
Translation of: Ayah 227, Surat AlBaqarah. (2:227)
Words: Azamou AlTalaq = They made up their minds - They determined to get divorce.

Q: What is the responsibility of a woman who expects her husband to treat her always kindly?
A: And divorced women have to watch themselves for three months and it is not lawful for them to conceal what Allah has created in their wombs if they were believing in Allah and the Last Day (Day of Judgement) - and their husbands have the right to take them back in that matter (pregnancy) if they wanted reconciliation and for them (rights) is similar to what (responsibilities) are upon them amicably* - and for men over them is a degree* and Allah is AlMighty All-Wise.
Translation of: Ayah 228, Surat AlBaqarah. (2:228)
* In Islam it is the duty of the husband to look financially over the house expenses. The wife helps voluntarily.
Words: AlMuttalaqat = Divorced women, Yatarrabassna BiAnfusihim = Watch themselves, Arhamihinna = Their wombs, Islah = Reconciliation, BilMa'rouf = Amicably - With fairness - With good acts - With good sayings and actions, Darajatun = Degree.

Q: How does Allah's Mercy appear even in the action of divorce?
A: Divorce (for the same woman) is two times* then either you holding her amicably or releasing her with kindness and it is not lawful for you (men) to take anything from what you gave them except if both fear that they would not** (in something) observe Allah's Limits so if you (plural) fear that they may not observe Allah's Limits then there is no blame on both of them with what she ransomed (freed)*** herself - those are the Limits of Allah so do not go beyond them and whoever goes beyond Allah's Limits then those are the transgressors.
Translation of: Ayah 229, Surat AlBaqarah. (2:229)
* Reconciliation is allowed after the first divorce and the second divorce. Note: The Ayah indicates it is forbidden to say the word of (Divorce = 'Talaq') three times together. First 'Talaq' one word. Second 'Talaq' second word. Source: Tafseer Ibn Kastheer, volume 1, page 396.
** They will not live together as husband and wife neither will they separate justly and fairly.
*** Called "Khale'" in Islam. She may give him what he wants to free herself from him. I knew a married woman who sadly gave her husband full custody of her new born baby just to get divorce from him.
Words: Imsaak = Holding, Tasreeh = Releasing, Eftadat = Ransomed, Hodoud = Limits, Yataada = Goes beyond - Trespasses.

Q: What do a husband and a wife have to abide by when they are married or divorced?
A: But if he divorced her (third time) then she will not become lawful for him after that until she gets married* to a husband other than him so if he (second man) divorced her then there is no blame on both of them (first man and the divorced wife) if they wanted to return together if they thought that they were going to observe Allah's Limits - and those are Allah's Limits He explains them to a people (Muslims) who have knowledge.
Translation of: Ayah 230, Surat AlBaqarah. (2:230)
* She has to have intercourse with him. Source: Tafseer waBayan Mufradat AlQuran, in Arabic, Page 36.
Words: Tahillu = Become lawful - Become allowed, Tankiha = Gets married, Yataraja'a = Return together, Dhanna = They thought, Hodoud = Limits - Restrictions, LiQawm = A people - A nation.

Q: Why cannot a Muslim verbally divorce his wife and then say he was joking? And why cannot a man leave his wife separated to harm her - neither living with her nor divorcing her?
A: And if you divorce the women (first and second times) so they reach their appointed time (3 months of waiting) then (either) keep them (in marriage) amicably or free them amicably and do not keep them for doing harm and to commit an aggression (against them) and whoever does that then he has wronged himself - and do not take Allah's Miraculous Signs (Qur'anic Lines) for making fun* (of them) and remember Allah's Grace on you (Muslims) and what He sent to you of the Scripture and Wisdom - He grants you preaching (moral lessons) through it and protect yourselves (by fearing Allah) and let it be known to you that Allah of everything is All-Knowing.
Translation of: Ayah 231, Surat AlBaqarah. (2:231)
* If a man joking says the word 'divorce = Talaq' to his wife she becomes divorced. It is narrated that a man told Prophet Muhammad that he jokingly divorced his wife, so Prophet Muhammad held him responsible for it (wife got divorce). Source: Tafseer Ibn Kastheer, Volume 1, Page 401.
Words: FaAmsikouhunna = Then keep them, Sarihouhunna = Free them, Dhiraran = For doing harm, LiTa'tadou = To commit aggression, Dhalama = Has wronged - Has made injustice, Huzowa = For making fun - An object of mockery, Ya'idhukum = He grants you preaching - moral lessons - good advice.

Q: Why the relatives of a woman who is divorced only twice (and not the third irrevocable) should not stand in the way of her and ex-husband returning together if they showed signs of mutual understanding?
A: And if you divorce the women so they reach their appointed time (3 months of waiting) then do not make it difficult for them (women) to marry their (ex) husbands if they reached mutual consent amicably - that (Command) is a preaching (moral lesson) granted to whoever among you believes in Allah and the last Day - Such (previously said) is purer (making virtuous = Azka) for you (plural) and more cleansing (freeing of sins = Athar) and Allah knows and you do not know.
Translation of: Ayah 232, Surat AlBaqarah. (2:232)
Words: Ta'dholouhunna = Make it difficult for them, Taradhau = If they reached mutual consent, BilMa'rouf = Amicably, Yu'adh = A preaching granted - A moral lesson granted, Thalikum = Such is - Previously said is, Azka = Purer - More befitting - More appropriate, Athar = More cleansing - Freeing of sins.

Q: What happens to the new born infant when his parents are divorced?
A: And the mothers breastfeed (give suck) their children two full years for whoever wants to complete the breastfeeding - and it is a must on whose child is giving them provision and clothing amicably - no soul is burdened beyond its capacity - no mother is to be harmed because of her child nor (the man) whose child is (harmed) because of his child and on the heir* similar to that - so if they (both) wanted weaning through mutual consent and consultation then there is no blame on (both of) them - and if you wanted your children breastfed (by wet-nurses = foster mothers) then there is no blame on you if you handed them (what you offered amicably and protect yourselves by fearing Allah and let it be known to you that Allah of what you do is All-Seeing.
Translation of: Ayah 233, Surat AlBaqarah. (2:233)
* When the father is not available for custody.
Words: Yurdhi'na = Give suck - Breasfeed, Halayn = Two years, Kamilayn = Full, Kiswatuhunna = Their clothing, Wus'aha = Its capability, Tudhar = Harmed, Fissalan = Weaning, Tastardi'ou = Breastfed, Sallamtum = You handed - You gave, Ataytum = Offered.

Q: What is the waiting time for a married woman when her husband dies?
A: And those who die among you and leave behind wives - they have to watch themselves for (pregnancy) four months and ten (days) so if they reach their appointed time* then there is no blame on you (plural) about what they do to themselves** amicably and Allah with what you do is Well-Acquainted.
Translation of: Ayah 234, Surat AlBaqarah. (2:234)
* Called in Arabic AlIddah.
** Marry another man for example.
Words: Yutawaffawna = Die, Yatharouna = Leave behind, Khabeer = Well-Acquainted - All-Expert.

Q: What about a Muslim divorcing his newly wed wife?
A: There is no blame* on you (plural) if you divorce women before touching (sleeping with) them or (before) assigning them a due amount (dowry) - and provide for them (gifts) temporary enjoyment (to maintain)** - the wealthy as per his capacity and the tight-fisted as per his capacity - a maintenance (financial support) amicably - (which is) a must upon the righteous persons.
Translation of: Ayah 236, Surat AlBaqarah. (2:236)
* No sin on your side neither expenses to pay.
** Your gift to her will ease the divorce consequences for her and as a testimony of her uprightness. Source: Safwat AlBayan LiMa'ani AlQur'an, page 38.
Words: Tamssouhunna = Touch them, Mate'ouhunna = Provide for them temporary enjoyment - Provide for them to maintain - to keep, AlMu'se' = The wealthy - The one who spends freely, The AlMuqtar = Tight-fisted - Who spends tightly, Poor, Fareedhatn = Haqqan = A must, AlMuhsineen = The righteous persons.

Q: When at the time of divorce what should both husband and wife remember doing towards each other?
A: And if you divorce them (wives) before touching them and you have (already) assigned for them a due amount (dowry) then (give them) half of what you assigned except if they (wives) waive it or the one (husband) in whose hand* is the marriage knot** (bond) waives it (his right) and to waive is closer to piety - and do not forget doing favour between you indeed Allah of what you do is All-Seeing.
Translation of: Ayah 237, Surat AlBaqarah. (2:237)
* If the husband decides to give his newly wed wife whom he divorced even without sleeping with her, her full dowry he can. Source: The Holy Qur'an: English Translation of the Meanings and Commentary. Based on the translation of Abdullah Yusuf Ali, page 105.
** In Islam only the husband may divorce his wife and not vice versa. (There are other ways in Islam when the woman can get divorce for an example "Khale'" in Islam. Refer to the Translation (2:229) above).
Words: Ya'founa = They waive - forgive, Uqdatu AlNikah = Marriage knot - Marriage bond, Aqrabu = Closer, La Tansau = Do not forget, AlFadhla = Doing favour.

Q: How does Islam defend the right of a divorced woman in her husband's wealth?
A: And for the divorced women a temporary enjoyment* (some payment) amicably (which is) - a must on those who protect themselves (by fearing Allah).
Translation of: Ayah 241, Surat AlBaqarah. (2:241)
* In Islam a a divorced woman is entitled to some part of her husband's wealth to spend on the children for example. She does not have the right to split the wealth with her husband.
Words: Mata'un = A temporary enjoyment.

Q: Why is divorce for example detailed in the Qur'an?
A: In that way (the detailed Qur'anic Lines) Allah makes clear for you (plural) His Miraculous Signs (Qur'anic Lines) so that you may come to realize.
Translation of: Ayah 242, Surat AlBaqarah. (2:242)
Words: Yubayyin = Makes clear - Explains, La'allakum = You may, Ta'qiloun = Come to realize - understand - Use your brains.

Q: What is the situation in Islam of newly widowed women?
A: And those of you (men) who die and leave behind wives - a directive command for their wives is a year's maintenance (financial support) without driving out (from the house) but if they leave then there is no blame on you about what they do to themselves of kindness and Allah is AlMighty All-Wise.
Translation of: Ayah 240, Surat AlBaqarah. (2:240)
Words: Wassiyattan = A Directive command, Matt'an = Maintenance - Financial support, Ila AlHawli = A year's, Ghayra Ikhraj = Without driving out, FaIn Kharajna = But if they leave, Min Ma'rouf = Of kindness - Of good.

Q: What is the Islamic Ruling about the intent to marry a widow during her waiting time '= AlIddah*'?
A: And there is no blame on you (Muslim men) of what you hinted of proposal to women (during their waiting time) or what you kept it secret in your souls (hearts = Anfusikum) Allah knows that you were going to remember them (when in love) but do not meet secretly with them except to say an amicable (cooperative righteous) saying - and do not intend (to tie) the marriage knot until the term (waiting time) reaches its appointed time - and let it be known to you that Allah knows what is in your souls so be warned of Him and let it be known to you that Allah is Most-Forgiving Most-Tolerant.
Translation of: Ayah 235, Surat AlBaqarah. (2:235)
* In Islam, 'iddah' or 'iddat' in Arabic = period of waiting) is the period a woman must observe after the death of her spouse or after a divorce, during which she may not marry another man. Its purpose is to ensure that the male parent of any offspring produced after the cessation of a nikah (marriage) would be known. Source: Google definition
Words: Arradhtum = Hinted, Khittbati = Proposal, Aknantum = Kept it secret, SaTathkurouhunna = You are going to remember them, Tuwaidouhunna Sirran = Meet secretly with them, Ma'roufa = Amicable - Cooperative - Righteous, AlKitabu = Term, Ajalahu = Its appointed time, Anfusikum = Your souls - Yours hearts, FeHtharouhu = So be warned of Him - Be cautious of Him.

Q: Why is it against Islamic Principles to leave one's wealth to a certain person without the others who have a right in his wealth?
A: It is dictated upon you (plural) when death meets any of you if he has left wealth (then) the directive command (of inheritance = the will) is for the parents* and the close relatives* amicably - (it is) a must upon those who protect themselves (by fearing Allah).
Translation of: Ayah 180, Surat AlBaqarah. (2:180)
* One's parents and close relatives are among the Quota-heirs (dhawu al-fardh): Usually include daughters, parents, grandparents, husband and wife/ wives, brothers and sisters, and others. This group usually take a designated share or quota of the estates. Source: Wikipedia.org.
Words: Hadhara = Meets - Come to, Khayran = Wealth, AlWassiyatu = The directive command - The will, AlAqrabeen = The close relatives, Haqqan = A must.

Q: Why is it a good practice for Muslims to leave a will (written or vocal) naming their heirs?
A: So whoever alters it (will) after hearing it then indeed its sin is upon those who alter it indeed Allah is All-Hearing All-Knowing.
Translation of: Ayah 181, Surat AlBaqarah. (2:181)
Note: Note in Islam inheritance is distributed to the Quota-heirs. Muslims are enouraged to leave a will (written or vocal) especially for who else they want to give some of their inheritance. Source: Safwat AlBayan liMa'ani AlQur'an, in Arabic, page 43.
(Note: There may be secret and unknown close relatives who are entitled to a share in one's wealth and the person may include them in his will).
Words: Baddallahu = Changed it, Isthmuhu = Its sin - Its misdeed.

Q: Why is it advised to interfere and fix the will if a testator does injustice to his heirs in shares (portions) they are entitled to inherit?
A: But whoever (distributes inheritance) fears deviation* on the part of the testator** or sinning*** then he makes amends**** among them (the will and the heirs) then there is no sinning on his part indeed Allah is Most-Forgiving Most-Merciful.
Translation of: Ayah 182, Surat AlBaqarah. (2:182)
* "Janaf" = Deviation from the Truth unintentionally. Source: Safwat AlBayan liMa'ani AlQur'an, in Arabic, Page 43.
** Testator in law: A person who has made a will or given a legacy. Source: Google definition
*** "Isthm" = To make injustice intentionally. Source: Tafseer waBayan Mufradat AlQuran, in Arabic, page 28.
**** To make amends (justice) in the case by turning to what is nearest and similar to it with an intention to coordinate between the inheritor's will and the Islamic Law in inheritance. Source: Tafseer Ibn Kastheer, Volume 1, Page 309.
Words: Moussi = Testator - A person who leaves a will, Janafan = Deviation, Isthm = Sinning - Blame, FaAslaha = So he made amends - Fixed.

Q: What happens in Islamic law when a man accuses his wife of adultery?
Note:The translation of the preceding Ayat 4-5 in Surat AlNoor
A: And those who accuse their wives (of adultery) and there are no witnesses for them except their own selves then the testimony of one of them is taking an oath four times by Allah that he is certainly one of the truthful; And the fifth (oath acknowledging*) that the Curse** of Allah is upon him if he is one of the liars.
Translation of: Ayat 6 - 7, Surat AlNoor. (24:6-7).
* accepting the truth of the coming Statement. Before this Fifth statement, the 'judge' warns and reminds the witness, as Prophet Muhammad did in a case, that this fifth statement will make the person liable for punishment in life. And that human punishment in this life is much easier than Allah's punishment in the Other Life. Source: Tafseer Ibn Kastheer, volume 3, page 391.
** The accuser, if a liar, will be away from Allah's Mercy.
Words: Yarmouna = Accuse, FaShahadatu = Then the testimony - Then taking an oath - Then the legal statement, , Mina AlSadiqeen = One of the truthful, Lanata Allah = The Curse of Allah, Mina Alkathibeen = One of the liars.

Q: Why is it better for the guilty person to receive punishment in life rather than lying and hiding his guilt?
A: And punishment will be warded off her if she takes an oath four times by Allah that he is certainly one of the liars; And the fifth (oath acknowledging) that the Wrath of Allah is upon her if he was one of the truthful; And were it not for Allah's Favour upon you (plural) and His Mercy* - and that Allah is Most-Pardoning Most-Wise.
Translation of: Ayat 8 - 10, Surat AlNoor. (24:8-10).
* The answer to this statement is that you would have certainly been punished in life for lying.
Words: Yadrau = Is warded off - Is averted, An Tashhad Billah= That she takes an oath by Allah.

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